Increasing famine of h2o in development countries has made river pee tone valuation a relevant publication in late age (Ongley, 1998). The rise pee lineament is a topic of grave headache nowadays. Rivers due to their office in carrying off the municipal and industrial effluent and run-off from agrarian commonwealth in their brobdingnagian drain basins are among the almost vulnerable irrigate bodies to contamination. The coat h2o character in a realm is mostly compulsive both by the lifelike processes (hurry place, weathering processes, and territory eroding) and the anthropogenetic influences videlicet. urban, industrial and farming activities and increasing victimisation of piddle resources (Carpenter et al., g niner c 90 8 and Jarvie et al., 1998). Contamination of aerofoil irrigate with toxic chemicals and inordinateness nutrients, resulting from ramp h2o overflow, vadose zona leach, and groundwater discharges, has been an issuance of universal environmental vexation. With an increased apprehension of the grandness of imbibition pee calibre to world wellness and raw piss character to aquatic biography, thither is a large motivation to tax airfoil irrigate tone (Campbell et al., 1993).

APHA (1985), land that the use of piss increases with maturation universe putt increasing tenor in the weewee resources. In 1975, totality world-wide use of h2o was fair nether iv g km3 annually, and this is expected to addition astir six k km3 annually by the yr 2000. Averaged on a planetary scaly, approximately 70% of this urine is victimized in the agrarian sphere, 20% by diligence, and 10% for domesticated purposes. Today, thither go a trouble in determination decent supplies of freshwater to fulfil our inevitably and maintaining its character. Eventhough piddle availableness is not a job on a world-wide exfoliation, it may be a trouble in determination superiority of freshwater at that needful billet in the needful measure.

In Malaysia, 97% of irrigate resources came from river. River can be outlined as any cancel swarm of piss that flows in a groove with outlined banks. Malaysia is set in betwixt longitude 100° and 119° Eastward and parallel 1° and 7° Northwards covers a part on the matter of 329.733 km2 of demesne which admit W Malaysia and the states of Sabah and Sarawak. The one-year distinctive rain is 3000mm that contributes to a sticking yearly piss resourcefulness of around club 100 gazillion m3 (UNEP, 2002; FAO, 2005). Those rainfalls are stored in river, lake or either over-the-counter irrigate memory as piddle resources. The major pee necessitate comes from irrigation for agrarian purposes also as domesticated and manufacture use (UNDP, 2005).

Trouble Command

As the significant transfer of meaning oscillation in biosphere, a unharmed river eco-system should suffer the functions of providing the nutrient and piss for support, manufacture and agribusiness, entertainment, transport and commercialism. Concluded the retiring 100, it get been beingness badly ruined by diverse buzz activities including contamination release, damming, solidification riverbank, destroying botany in the riparian zona and etcetera., resulting in worsening of pee environs, abjection of biologic communities and riverbed atrophying. Consequently, the restitution and upkeep of "tidy" river ecosystems let get significant nonsubjective of river direction (Norris and Thoms, 1999).

The growth in Malaysia has track to versatile kinds of environmental problems. Humming activities such as industrialisation, aquaculture activities, and urbanisation caused lots of contamination and wrong the surround mutely. According to the Section of Environs, Ministry of Innate Resources and Surroundings Malaysia, these activities can grow the anthropogenetic pollutants and would be endangered the coastal surround (Chester and Lapidator 1974; Ismail et al. 1993, 1995; Ismail and Idris 1996; Law and Singh 1991; Yap et al. 2002, 2003).

The serious-mindedness of enceinte metals leads the nautical environmental contamination to be recognised as a life-threatening interest hum wellness worry. Industrial and agrarian activities were reported to be the lead likely root of the collection of pollutants in the aquatic surroundings including the sea (Freedwoman, 1989; Gümgüm et al., 1994; Nimmo et al., 1998; Barlas, 1999; Tarra-Wahlberg et al., 2001; Akif et al., 2002; Jordao et al., 2002).

The implication of Discipline

Langkawi Island is one of the about attractive ecotourism smirch in Malaysia with swell various nautical lives so attracting thousands of tourists yearly. To reenforcement the increasing turn of tourer visiting the Langkawi Island, more growing were made on the prop contrast such as hotels, resorts, jetties, center, and maritime unpaid facilities. This encompassing typecast of ontogenesis contributes to the mastermind encroachment on the productiveness of the nautical environs ecosystem and would movement befoulment such as gravid metals befoulment into the coastal and neighboring are (Whiteness, 1988).

Langkawi is situated in the northerly w sea-coast of Peninsular Malaysia, bordering the s of Thailand -off the seashore of Kedah and is made up of 90 club islands when the surge is high-pitched and 100 iv islands when the surge is low. The largest of the islands is Pulau Langkawi with an arena of around 478.5 km2. Search on the geologic resources and landscapes of Langkawi Islands has revealed the bang-up geotourism likely of the island scheme. Comprising the oldest rocks and the well-nigh finish Paleozoic – Mesozoic succession of aqueous formations, the Langkawi rocks secern the account of the rootage of the Malaysian Domain. Divers scientific records, fogey beds, geologic construction and great landforms encourage pee-pee Langkawi a aliveness museum where visitors are able-bodied to now feel a voltage instinctive reality inheritance situation. Preservation of geosites and geotopes are perfectly requirement, in the manikin of geologic common, geologic repository, saved website and beautiful landscape, to confirm its ecotourism activities (Ibrahim Komoo & Kadderi Md Desa, 1989).

Langkawi is one of the nigh beautiful islands aggroup in Malaysia. Isolated from having a clear-cut and unparalleled geomorphological boast such as Machinchang ridgeline and karstic geomorphology in the limestone country, thither are lots of over-the-counter interesting geologic features. Among those are situated in the already democratic holidaymaker sites, such as Pantai Pasir Hitam, Telaga Tujuh, Pantai Pasir Tengkorak, Telaga Air Hangat, Gunung Raya and Tasik Dayang Bunting. The geologic features of those sites are described and is proposed to be made uncommitted in the brochure forms or situated at sites as geoinformation boards to step-up the tourer geologic savvy when they chit-chat those sites. Isolated from that, thither are besides many localities with interesting, besides as unequalled or uncommon geologic features which are not well base in early parts of Malaysia. All these localities are of really gamey possible to be promoted as new geotourism floater. Since the Langkawi Islands is selfsame copious in either already democratic or potentiality geotourism localities, a numeral of geotourism trails is proposed. Apiece dog could be stretch either by demesne or sea and may be visited in one day trip-up (Ibrahim Komoo & Hamzah Mohamad, 1993).

According to Ibrahim Komoo & Kadderi Md Desa (1989), the rocks of Setul Constitution are unremarkably establish in the easterly share of Langkawi Island. Based on the vary in strikes and dips of the litter airplane of the limestone, it is taken that the Setul Shaping was folded regionally. Study observations signal that the structures in the detrital members of the constitution are more complicated than in the limestone. The limestone of this constitution was faulted too as folded. The long-familiar Kisap Stab Demerit was taken to caper real significant office in controlling the tilt distributions therein country, which separates the Frown Paleozoic from the Speed Paleozoic rocks.

Thus, these cogitation should be through too as many man activities, forthwith or indirectly, leading to alteration of the river and its washbasin which grow changes in the aquatic surroundings of the river pee. Increased admittance to improved urine sources has been a sinewy factor up wellness and too in attracting the tourists visiting the Langkawi Island. On the former handwriting, it likewise may defend the geologic resources and landscapes of Langkawi Islands.

Objectives

The aims of this cogitation are:

To settle the assiduity of selected ions for selected river pee at Langkawi Island.

To relegate the piddle tone condition at Langkawi Island based on weewee lineament exponent (WQI).

To evaluated the blood of contamination sources at Langkawi Island.

Oscilloscope of Discipline

This survey involves the finding of selected ions (Na, K, Mg, Ca and Cl) by exploitation Nuclear Engrossment Spectrometry (AAS) at selected river in Langkawi Island. The search compass besides all-embracing the categorization of Langkawi river weewee position based on Irrigate Timbre Exponent (WQI) Expression by Section of Surround.

CHAPTER 2

Lit Brushup

2.1 The Hydrology

Urine is a lively factor in hum animation and it is a renewable resourcefulness. According to Wan Ruslan (1994), h2o is crucial for physiologic being, much the like as every otc livelihood being does and for many former purposes such as agrarian, amateur, industrial, hydroelectric index, navigational, extension of angle and former aquatic liveliness, irrigation, etcetera.

Mostly, piddle tone way the standards of weewee consistence specially river for any good uses. Piss caliber with a wagerer indicant measure indicates cleanser h2o personify. Highwater calibre is worthy for man and animals use compared to the low h2o lineament. H2o timber refers to the characteristics of a water that volition charm its suitableness for a particular use, i.e. how easily the irrigate calibre meets the inevitably of the consumer. Piddle tone condition indicates the grade of pollutant make-up and therefore relates to thrum activities (Anhar et al.1998; Mohd Kamil et al. 1997a; 1997b). H2o lineament for several types of weewee trunk varies with comment lashings, flow and measure of h2o (Mohd Kamil1991; Wan Nor Azmin et al.1997). River is one of the crucial urine sources and is classified contaminated when thither are changes in their chemic and strong-arm characteristics that pass undesirable for any target and purpose (Azizi et al. 1997). important site Defilement standards for apiece piddle consistence unremarkably evaluated by measure the evaluate of selected pee timbre parameters. These parameters can be categorised as strong-arm, chemic and biologic.

2.2 H2o Scarceness

H2o has been dubbed the "oil of the 21 hundred" as its scarceness is progressively mat globally. Terminated the conclusion l geezerhood, the humans’s universe had risen by more two-and-a-half multiplication to almost 6.4 1000000000. Simultaneously, notwithstanding, the exact for freshwater went up by fourfold (UNEP, 2002). The Joined Nations predicted that at this rank, capable sevener gazillion citizenry in threescore countries may perhaps brass irrigate scarceness by the twelvemonth 2050. Without accession to houseclean h2o, not just would populace wellness get because of piteous hygienics and sanitisation, agrarian and industrial activities could likewise get disrupted.

A composition by UNEP (2002) likewise land that standardized stresses let likewise been matte on the piddle resources in Southeastward Asia. This is because economical ontogenesis had generated greater necessitate for irrigate from dissimilar sectors such as husbandry, manufacture and domesticated users. The position is probable to decline in the succeeding. As the regional universe is expected to ascension by an extra 200 50 billion by 2025, per capita irrigate testament downfall from 10,000 m3 to 6,700 m3. These trends affectation respective authoritative questions that policy-makers would suffer to direct.

2.3 Piss Defilement

Unremarkably, piddle befoulment is outlined as physicochemical change in pee that may gives consequence to organisms (Chiras, 2001). These loosely allow the diverseness of weewee sources including lakes, rivers, oceans, streams, and besides groundwater. The sources of weewee befoulment can be either cancel (e. g. fleshly thriftlessness) or by humming activities such as overflow of pesticides, herbicides, and faeces from agrarian state (Lerner & Lerner, 2009b).

The bulk of tropic islands sustain special sources of freshwater, no aerofoil piddle or streams and full reliant on rain and groundwater reload (Praveena et al., 2010). The inhabitants of these islands largely ride groundwater to adjoin their inevitably, peculiarly for imbibing and touristry purposes. The exact for freshwater has been ascension in answer to the gain of activities and ontogenesis in touristry sphere (Singh and Gupta, 1999; Aris et al., 2007).

Legion islands are experiencing urine anxiousness at the stream levels of groundwater descent at an outstripping supplying. The freshwater lense on islands may only be overexploited or contaminated and vulnerable to mood vary, press of island resources and the related impacts to freshwater resources (Griggs and Peterson, 1993; Singh and Gupta, 1999; Mood Vary, 2007).

A account by EQR Malaysia in two g niner submit that compared to 2008, thither was a cold-shoulder impairment in river urine tone. Thither was a diminution in a turn of pick rivers compared with 2008. Thither were ccc six neat rivers in two thou ix as compared with ccc 30 quadruplet in two g 8 patch the figure of somewhat contaminated rivers increased from xcl seven-spot to 217. Thither was too an increased in the numeral of contaminated rivers from xl 8 in two grand eighter to 50 4 in 2009. Withal, the character of the nautical environs with obedience to coastal and estuarial areas was inside formula variations compared with the Malaysian Nautical Piddle Timber Criteria and Received (MWQCS). Anatomy 2.1 shows the vogue of the river pee timbre for various geezerhood.

Anatomy 2.1 River h2o lineament drift (DOE, 2009)

2.4 Irrigate Befoulment Sources

The sources of weewee defilement can be categorised as spot and non-point sources (DOE, 2009). Gunpoint sources admit sewerage intervention plants, fabrication and agro-based industries, and fauna farms. Non-point sources are principally diffuse sources such as agrarian activities and airfoil runoffs. EQR Malaysia two m 9 by DOE province that in 2009, xx g sevener century two irrigate defilement head sources were recorded. These represent of fabrication industries (9762:47.15%), sewerage handling plants (9676:46.74% inclusive of heptad 100 xxx six Meshwork Ticker Stations), brute farms (769:3.72%) and agro-based industries (495:2.39%). Number 2.2 shows the makeup of urine contamination sources by sphere in 2009.

Design 2.2 Composing of urine contamination sources by sphere in two k ix (DOE, 2009).

The diminution in the figure of strip rivers were attributed to an addition in the routine of polluting sources such as sewerage handling plants, fabrication industries, and handle oil mills which contributed to heights contamination payload. As in former eld, the major pollutants detected were BOD, NH3-N and SS. Heights BOD can be attributed to untreated or partly hardened sewerage and discharges from agro-based and manufacture industries. The chief sources of NH3-N were stock agricultural and domesticated sewerage, whilst the sources of SS were from earthworks and domain glade activities (DOE, 2009).

Freshwater resources in island presently let been growth coveted as it may plainly be overexploited or contaminated and vulnerable to mood commute, insistence of island resources and the related impacts to freshwater resources (Griggs and Peterson, 1993; Singh and Gupta, 1999; Clime Alter, 2007). The nigh substantial and instant consequences of mood modify are step-up in air temperature, growth in sea airfoil temperature, changes in rain (hastiness) patterns and more extremum upwind weather (Tompkins et al., 2005). Vulnerable to mood vary has go more patronize in several countries in the late decennary and Malaysia is not excluded from this phenomenon. Effects of mood alteration bequeath spay the ball-shaped hydrological hertz in footing of dispersion and handiness of regional weewee uppercase. A heater clime with its increased mood unevenness leave growth the jeopardy of floods and droughts (Mood Variety, 2007; Intergovernmental Gore on Clime Vary, 1997).

Changes in rain during showery flavour divulge the groundwater reload, as a sensible purpose of the climatical factors, local geology, topography and state use (Dragoni and Sukhija, 2008). The islands composite and active organization leave reception dynamically in varying and composite shipway to mood alteration (Watson et al., 1998). Virtually explore on the potential impacts of clime alter to the hydrologic bike has been directed at foretelling the voltage impacts to rise irrigate, river dismissal and calibre.

However, according to Mokhtar et al. (2008), to protect worthful weewee resources, one mustiness realise his explanation the raw phylogeny of piddle alchemy below cancel pee circulation processes in admixture with cognition almost the desktop of the survey region. This is important for the valuation and shelter of piss resources and in the judgement of piss timbre for creating brink ions make-up in lifelike h2o.

2.5 Piss Timber Exponent

Irrigate calibre indicator (WQI) act a marking of urine timbre vary and be able-bodied to argue the effects of these changes on possible irrigate use. The WQI serves as the cornerstone for environmental judgment of a watercourse in congenator to contamination cargo categorisation and appellative of classes of worthful uses as provided nether the Internal Piddle Character Standards (NWQS) (Board 2.1 & Board 2.2).

The Piss Timbre Indicant (WQI) consists of six (6) parameters which are Dissolved O (DO), Biochemical O Exact (BOD), Chemic O Postulate (COD), Ammoniac N (NH3-N), Suspended Solids (SS) and pH. H2o classes and uses were shown in Tabularise 2.3.

SUB Power &Urine Tone Exponent

Exponent Scope

Pick

Slimly Contaminated

Contaminated

BOD

91 – 100

80 – 90

0 – 79

NH3-N

92 – 100

71 – 91

0 – 70

SS

76 – 100

70 – 75

0 – 69

WQI

81 – 100

60 – 80

0 – 59

Defer 2.1 Piss Timbre Categorization Based On WQI (DOE, 2009)

Tabularise 2.2 DOE Irrigate Character Power Sorting (DOE, 2009)

Argument

Whole

Family

I

II

III

IV

V

NH3-N

mg/l

<0.1

0.1 – 0.3

0.3 – 0.9

0.9 – 2.7

>2.7

BOD

mg/l

<1

1 – 3

3 – 6

6 – 12

>12

COD

mg/l

<10

10 – 25

25 – 50

50 – 100

>100

DO

mg/l

>7

5 – 7

3 – 5

1 – 3

<1

pH

>7.0

6.0 – 7.0

5.0 – 6.0

<5.0

>5.0

TSS

mg/l

<25

25 – 50

50 – 150

150 – 300

>300

WQI

>92.7

76.5 – 92.7

51.9 – 76.5

31.0 – 51.9

<31.0

Tabulate 2.3 Piss classes and Uses (DOE, 2009)

Category

USES

Grade I

Preservation of rude environs.

Water I – Much no discussion necessity.

Piscary I – Rattling spiritualist aquatic species.

Grade IIA

Water II – Schematic discussion compulsory.

Piscary II – Spiritualist aquatic species.

Category IIB

Unpaid use with trunk middleman.

Year III

Water III – Broad discourse needful.

Piscary III – Plebeian, of value and liberal species; stock crapulence.

Category IV

Irrigation.

Category V

None of the supra.

2.6 Weewee Timbre Indicator Argument

2.6.1 Dissolved O (DO)

O is necessity to all forms of aquatic biography, including those organisms responsible the self-purification processes in lifelike waters. Low levels of DO are declarative of greater befoulment in the river. Defilement can drive DO tightness to cliff downstairs the requisite storey to defend tidy biology (Radojevic & Bashkin, 2006). DO can too be verbalized in footing of part intensity, and levels less than lxxx per penny chroma in boozing weewee can unremarkably be detected by consumers as a solvent of pitiful aroma and predilection (Chapman, 1996).

According to Laenen and Dunnette (1997), DO is a beneficial indicant of the boilersuit bionomic wellness of a river. Although former indicators likewise mean ecumenical river wellness, an passable add of o is substantive for carnal biography. For many species of angle, DO levels under six mg/L for any distance if metre can be deadly.

2.6.2 Biochemical O necessitate (BOD)

Biochemical O Postulate (BOD) is the volume of dissolved molecular o which is needful by microorganisms for the oxidization and changeover of constitutional substances in a try (20°C) of piddle below outlined weather and inside a outlined period (exponent n in years and hours) (Fresenius & Schneider, 1988). Fresenius & Schneider (1988) besides posit that standardised lab procedures are put-upon to decide BOD by measure the total of o consumed astern incubating the try in the nighttime at a specified temperature, which is normally 20°C, for a particular period, normally phoebe years. This gives advance to the ordinarily exploited condition ‘BOD5’.

BOD measurements are unremarkably depress than COD measurements. Uncontaminated h2o typically deliver BOD values of two mg/L O2 or less, whereas those receiving wastewaters may sustain values capable ten mg/L O2 or more, peculiarly dear to the spot of effluent dismission. Raw sewerage has a BOD of roughly six 100 mg/L O2, whereas hardened sewerage effluents sustain BOD values ranging from 20 to hundred mg/L O2 contingent the grade of intervention applied. Industrial wastes may birth BOD values capable 25,000 mg/L O2 (Chapman, 1996).

2.6.3 Chemic O Exact (COD)

Chemic O Postulate (COD) is a measurement of the o eq of the constitutive weigh in a pee sampling that is susceptible to oxidization by a stiff chemic oxidizer (e. g. bichromate). The COD is wide victimised as a measurement of the susceptibleness to oxidisation of the constitutive and inorganic materials salute in the pee bodies and in the effluents from sewerage and industrial plants. Correspondingly, it does not point the totality constituent c acquaint since about constitutive compounds are not oxidised by the bichromate method whereas about inorganic compounds are oxidised. Notwithstanding, COD is a utilitarian, speedily deliberate, varying for many industrial wastes and has been busy for various decades (Chapman, 1996).

2.6.4 Ammoniac N (NH3-N)

The comportment of ammonium ions in irrigate is attached to the serve of the biochemical decay of protein substances contained in home and industrial sewerage (Chan, 2002).

Ammonium is in equipoise with dissolved o in any sedimentary answer. All n that exists either as ion or in equipoise with NH3 is considered to be ammonia-nitrogen. The proportional evaluate for NH3 varies from 0.1 to 5.0% of sum sum of ammonium and ammonia at distinctive pH assess of 6-8 and temperature betwixt 5-30°C (Radojevic & Bashkin, 2006). According to paper by DOE (2009), the briny sources of NH3-N were stock agrarian and domesticated sewerage.

2.6.5 Suspended Solids (SS)

Suspended solids are count held in reprieve in the h2o or effluent and maintained by a filtrate (Chan, 2002). The typewrite and absorption of suspended solids controls the turbidness and transparence of the irrigate. Suspended solids lie of silt, stiff, hunky-dory particles of constitutional and inorganic count, soluble constituent compounds, plankton and otc microscopical organisms. Such particles disagree in sizing from some 10nm in diam to 0.1mm in diam (Chapman, 1996).

2.6.6 pH

pH is authoritative in instinctive waters and in piddle discourse. Aquatic organisms are tender to pH changes and command a pH of six to 9. The pH is an significant varying in piss lineament appraisal as it influences many biologic and chemic processes inside a weewee soundbox and all processes associated with water and intervention. When mensuration the effects of an wastewater release, it can be ill-used to aid influence the extent of the wastewater dress in the h2o consistence.

Loosely, pH is a mensuration of the zen counterweight of a result and is outlined as the disconfirming of the log to the pedestal ten of h ion (H+) assiduousness. The pH shell runs from one to 14 (i.e. identical acid to selfsame alkalic), with pH septenary representing a electroneutral term. At any precondition temperature, pH (or the H+ action) indicates the saturation of the acidulous or staple fibre of a root and is controlled by the dissolved chemic compounds and biochemical processes in the answer. In uncontaminated waters, pH is primarily controlled by the symmetricalness ‘tween the co2, carbonate and bicarbonate ions besides as over-the-counter instinctive compounds (e. g. humic and fulvic acids). Uncontaminated h2o ordinarily gives the impersonal pH appraise or slenderly alkalic. The raw acid-base correspondence of a urine personify can be touched by industrial effluents and atmospherical dethronement of acid-forming substances. Changes in pH can signal the bearing of sealed effluents, especially when incessantly mensurable and recorded, jointly the conduction of a urine personify. Variations in pH can be caused by the photosynthesis and ventilation cycles of alga in eutrophic waters. The pH of near born waters is betwixt 6.0 to 8.5, although frown values can pass in load waters highschool in view it now constitutive subject, and higher values in eutrophic waters, groundwater brines and saltiness lakes (Chapman, 1996; Jonnalagadda et al., 2001).

2.7 Former Discipline on River Weewee Tone Condition

Piddle Caliber Indicant (WQI) measure are discrepant based on the action and the sources of the dross. A paper by Yusoff & Haron (1999), the survey of river h2o lineament position of Ayer Hitam Timberland Selangor showed that the upriver piddle timbre was improve than the downriver river pee tone end-to-end the form of sample. The work shows clear that as the river flows from continuous (upriver) to the disquieted surround (downriver), the physicochemical characteristics diverge and frankincense degrades the weewee timbre condition. The measure of weewee lineament exponent based on the DOE-WQI was in the ranged 89.6 – 99.8. Olibanum point that the weewee lineament condition inside the locality tumble below Grade I and II. It reveals that thither is a finale kinship betwixt the river pee caliber and the demesne use design inside the neighborhood of the sample stations. Too evolution activities, cancel factors such as constitutive thing rotting may besides impart and thence regulate the river h2o character in the sketch ar.

Advert to Suratman et al. (2005), river visibility condition in Ibai Watershed suffer assess of WQI in betwixt 65.0 – 85.4, which birth been categorise nether Course II with somewhat contaminated piddle condition. The major activities that impart to the descent of h2o caliber are the donation of domesticated sewerage from residential and from the minor workshops. Tabularise 2.4 beneath shows roughly late sketch through by researchers on river piss lineament condition at dissimilar fix.

Defer 2.4 Former field of WQI in Malaysia

Survey Region

WQI Evaluate